SINDESMOLOGY

   Our syndesmologic specimens are processed via polymeric embalming. This enables demonstration of all natural movements of the joints, resilience, toughness expandability and elasticity of cartilage and fibrous elements. Most ligaments and muscular tendons are preserved in their natural forms by precise manual preparation, and left in situ. All anatomical topographic features of these specimens are demonstrated.
   The following list includes only typical anatomical specimens commonly used as visual teaching aids in medical schools and colleges of all levels. Complex, custom featured, and specially treated specimens for advanced or specific courses of Human Anatomy, Surgical Topographical Anatomy or Demonstrative Surgery are available upon customer request and specifications.

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Pictures of spesimens you can view in our gallery.

  This page includes:

General Sindesmology

Code Item description Remarks
  S-1 Anatomy of cartilaginous joint (amphiartroses) Frontal section of the pubic symphysis
  S-2 Cyllindrical joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio trochoidea Proximal radioulnar joints as an example
  S-3 Hinge joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio trochlearis Transverse axis of articulation with one degree of freedom (interphalangeal joint)
  S-4 Concave ellipsoid joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio ellipsoidea Articulation of two degrees freedom (radiocarpal joint as an example)
  S-5 Saddle joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio sellaris Two degrees of freedom at first (thumb) carpometacarpal joint
  S-6 Condylar joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio bicondylaris Knee joint
  S-7 Spherical joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio spheroidea Glenohumeral joint as an example. Photo
  S-8 Ball-and-socket joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio spheroidea Hip joints as an example (3 degrees of freedom)
  S-9 Flat joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio plana Intervertebral joints as an example
  S-10 Composite joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio composita Elbow as a combination of the humeroradial joint (ball-and-pivot, two degrees of freedom) and the humeroulnar joint (hinge, one degree of freedom)
  S-11 Combined joint (by the biomechanical function), articulatio combinatoria Gliding pivot of the radioulnar joint (one degree of freedom)
  OS/S Gross-specimen. Human skeleton with all joints see also Osteology

 

Cranial joints

Code Item description Remarks
  SC-1 Atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints Photo
  SC-2 Temporomandibular joint One of the joint capsules are dissected for demonstration purposes
  SC-3 Skull’s joints of adult All joints of skull
  SC-4 Skull’s joints of a newborn child Its goal is to demonstrate fontanelles

 

Torso joints

Code Item description Remarks
  ST-1 Joints of free vertebrae Its goal is to demonstrate all vertebral joints
  ST-2 Intervertebral disc Horizontal section
  ST-3 Interspinous, supraspinous, and intertransverse ligaments
  ST-4 Yellow vertebral ligament (Ligamentum flavum)
  ST-5 Sacrococcygeal joint
  ST-6 Articulations of ribs and thoracic vertebrae
  ST-7 Chondro-sternal, chondro-xiphoid, and interchondral articulations Part of the joints and sternum are dissected for demonstration
  ST-8 All torso joints (ribcage and thoracic part of the vertebral column) Photo

 

Joints of Upper Extremity

Code Item description Remarks
  SUE-1 Sternoclavicular joint
  SUE-2 Glenohumeral and acromioclavicular joints Photo
  SUE-3 Elbow joint Photo
  SUE-4 Forearm joints
  SUE-5 Radiocarpal, distal radioulnar, midcarpal joints and all palmar joints All joints of distal forearm, wrist and palm. Photo
 


 

Joints of Lower Extremity

Code Item description Remarks
  SLE-1 Connections of pelvic bones and major pelvic ligaments A coaxal bone as a fusion of ilium, ischium, and pubis; acetabulum structure, sacroiliac joint, pubic symphysis, tail bone joint; sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and sacroiliac ligaments
  SLE-2 Sacroiliac and hip joints Central pelvic section (midsagittal). Photo
  SLE-3A Knee joint
  SLE-3B Open knee joint The joint capsule is removed
  SLE-4 Joints of the leg
  SLE-5 Complete distal leg and foot joints Photo